Saturday, October 31, 2015

This is how we wash ... discs!

Så gør vi sådan, når vi vasker… plader! October, 2015.
     The Danish State Library has started to wash a large part of their old records so they can be digitized. Some can be cleaned by just wiping off the dust with a dry brush but other need a turn in the discwasher. This is a machine that looks like a turntable but instead of a needle has a small vacuum system that sucks water from the record. Another article on this, Disc washing at the library, has more information with images of the process of digitizing the 78 rpm record discs. There are about 37,000 Danish shellac discs (78 rpm records) and the audio engineer digitizes about 10 to 12 discs a day.  The process is to register the items to be digitized, check the condition of the disc, after which they are washed and cleaned. About three or four discs can be washed per hour. In the digitization room is the recording machine and an audio engineer who listens to the record and based on what he hears, chooses one of four different pickup needles for the final digitization. 

Friday, October 30, 2015

Vital information could be lost in 'digital dark age' warns professor

Vital information could be lost in 'digital dark age' warns professor. Sarah Knapton. The Telegraph. 11 Oct 2015.
     Professor David Garner, former president of the Royal Society for Chemistry, said that the world faces an information 'dark age' because so much information is stored digitally, and that "wherever possible, scientific data should be printed out and kept in paper archives to avoid crucial research being lost to future generations." Other quotes from the article are:
  • “Digital storage is great and has put knowledge in an instantly accessible form, but things really need to be backed up in paper formats as well. In my own lifetime I have experienced not being able to access information any longer because the formats are now out of date. I am not a luddite, and I think the internet is fantastic. But while it’s great to have a Plan A, we really need to have a Plan B. It’s really important that we have accessible paper archives. We risk a lot of information being lost without adequate paper copies."
  • Digital materials are especially vulnerable to loss and destruction because they are stored on fragile magnetic and optical media which can deteriorate and can easily be damaged by exposure to heat, humidity, and short circuits.
  • While a book can be left on a shelf for hundreds of years with little damage, information can suffer ‘bit rot’ where it can no longer be accessed. And opening each file manually to save it in a readable form would never be possible.
  • "Long term accessibility of data was not really taken into account in the 1980s and 1990s in the way it is now and I am delighted that there are a number of initiatives underway for the long term preservation of digital data," added Prof Garner.

Wednesday, October 28, 2015

DPOE Plants Seed for Statewide Digital Preservation Effort in California

DPOE Plants Seed for Statewide Digital Preservation Effort in California. Barrie Howard. The Signal. October 9, 2015.
     The Library of Congress partnered with the State Library of California to host a three-and-a-half day workshop to increase the knowledge and skills of those providing long-term access to digital content. The California Preservation Program provides consultation, information resources, and preservation services to archives, historical societies, libraries, and museums across the state. They want to help librarians, archivists, and museum curators educate others and advocate for statewide digital preservation services. The state's smaller memory institutions need help with digital preservation. The workshop helped participants think about how to work across jurisdictional and organizational boundaries to meet the needs of all state cultural heritage institutions, especially small organizations with very few staff.

Saturday, October 24, 2015

The National Film Board’s CTO offers a close-up look at its digital archiving project

The National Film Board’s CTO offers a close-up look at its digital archiving project. Shane Schick. IT World Canada. October 16, 2015.
     The Canadian National Film Board has been putting together the technology, processes and policies to change the way films are produced, collected and stored. The NFB collection needs a particular set of metadata because of the versions produced.

Archiving digital content is an ongoing challenge for many organizations because the volume of content and also "the fact that formats change, and ensuring the long-term accessibility and quality can be uncertain". The organization tries to stay ahead of the difficulties by adhering to to four ‘golden rules’ of archiving. These include:
  1. There must be a process to continually check the integrity of the data which has been stored.
  2. Open file formats should be used whenever possible, in order to avoid frequent data migrations.
  3. Obsolescence of the storage hardware should be assumed as inevitable.
  4. Two copies of all content or media assets should be maintained on different technologies, in different locations, which is the "most critical" part.
While LTO tapes are often used in the industry, the organization uses ASG’s Digital Archive (based on Sony’s Optical Disk Array). These discs have a 50 year life expectancy. They still use LTO for backup, but now they have the optical element that they can go back to. “The archiving system allowed us to think beyond the film.”  The new way of thinking is very open. "We can ingest content as we produce it."  

Friday, October 23, 2015

Metadata for your Digital Collections

Metadata for your Digital Collections. Jenn Riley. Indiana Cooperative Library Services Authority. March 6, 2007.
    A slideshow about metadata that I came across while preparing a presentation. A summary:
There are many definitions of metadata; generally it can be defined as structured information about an information resource. The presentation looks at the uses, structure and types of metadata:
  • Descriptive metadata
  • Technical metadata
  • Preservation metadata
  • Rights metadata
  • Structural metadata
Each of the various metadata types have their structures, values, benefits, and limitations, including:
  • Dublin core, inability to "provide robust record relationships".                          
  • Qualified Dublin Core
  • MARC
  • MARCXML, "the exact structure of MARC21 in an XML syntax"
  • MODS, "'MARC-like' but intended to be simpler"
  • Others include Visual Resources Association Core, TEI, EAD, FRBR,
The standards are important now because it will help in migrating to other systems later and the collections will be more inter-operable.  Good digital collections are:
  • Inter-operable, shareable and searchable
  • Persistent
  • Re-usable for multiple purposes
It notes that "good metadata promotes good digital collections". To share the metadata it needs to be prepared to map across other formats and systems. A map or 'crosswalk' can be created to do this. It is "good practice to create and store most robust metadata format possible." You need to find the right balance for your metadata. Good shareable metadata should involve:
  • content
  • consistency
  • coherence
  • context
  • communication
  • conformance
That is what the standards help to do.

Thursday, October 22, 2015

Preparing for format migration

Preparing for format migration. Chris Erickson. Presentation to the Utah State Archives fall conference. October 22, 2015. [PDF presentation]
     The presentation begins with terms and definitions of digital preservation, obsolescence, fixity, migration, refreshing, and formats. Formats include hardware, software, media, and systems. The purpose of migration is:
  1. Avoid media failure
  2. Avoid obsolescence
  3. Benefit from new technologies
The goal of migration is to change the object to deal with software and hardware developments but not affect the original representation. There are some cautions (cited):
  • “Data migration success rates are never 100%”
  • Successive storage/migration cycles accumulate failures, data corruption and loss.
  • Even if data migration is flawless, repeated migrations will take its toll on the data “the nearly universal experience has been that migration is labor-intensive, time-consuming, expensive, error-prone, and fraught with the danger of losing or corrupting information.”
The presentation provides an overview of creating a migration plan, advance preparations and follow up actions. Some of the issues are from my personal data migrations, as well as corporate examples. In the end, it is important to clearly understand what you have and what you need to do, then to start, even if it is a small step.

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

DPC invites members to review the OAIS Standard

DPC invites members to review the OAIS Standard. William Kilbride, et al. Digital Preservation Coalition,  Open Preservation Foundation. October 21, 2015.
"DPC is delighted to welcome members to participate in the review of OAIS, work that will hold our interest for a couple of years and which we aim to build into a platform for collaboration among our diverse members in the future.

The OAIS standard published by both the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and as ISO14721 has been highly influential in the development of digital preservation. As a reference model it provides a common basis for aligning disparate practice in diverse institutional settings. A range of standards have emerged around and related to OAIS including PREMIS (for preservation metadata), ISO16363 (for certification) and PAIMAS (for exchange between Producers and Archives).

Since OAIS was initially proposed the digital preservation community has grown tremendously in absolute numbers and in diversity. OAIS adoption has expanded far beyond the space data community to include cultural heritage, research data centers, commerce, industry and government.

The digital preservation community has – we have! – a responsibility to keep our standards relevant. The upcoming ISO review of the OAIS standard in 2017 offers a chance for a cooperative, transparent review process. It also creates an opportunity for further community building around OAIS and related initiatives.

"The outcome from this activity is not simply a wiki nor is it a set of recommendations. By providing a shared open platform for the community that gathers around the OAIS we aim to ensure on-going dialogue about our standards and their implementation in the future.
In this sense the 2017 review is a milestone on the way to an engaged and empowered community rather than a destination.
  • OAIS Community forum via a wiki: Your feedback and the discussions on this wiki will provide raw material for an editorial committee of the most active participants to formulate recommendations which will result in a formal submission to the 2017 review. So sign in and add your views!
  • Exploring official mechanisms: Official mechanisms for the review of ISO standards are well established via National Standard Bodies and these will be explored and used to give input for the review.
  • Active Interaction: Ensuring inclusion for this large, diverse community will mean collaborative virtual meetings are necessary but we all recognize the value of meeting face to face and will seek to enable this.
Join the community and contribute your views on the wiki here:

University of Alabama at Birmingham Selects Ex Libris Rosetta for Digital Preservation

The University of Alabama at Birmingham Opts for Ex Libris Alma, Primo, and Rosetta Solutions. News Release. Ex Libris. October 21, 2015.
     The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has selected the Ex Libris products, including the Rosetta digital asset management and preservation solution. "Rosetta’s end-to-end digital asset infrastructure will preserve digital resources at both libraries and keep such resources accessible for future generations.... We are acquiring Rosetta to support preservation for UAB’s digital assets, ranging from institutional memory to research data."

Tuesday, October 20, 2015

Faculty receive digital preservation grant for statewide project

Faculty receive digital preservation grant for statewide project. Press Release. Indiana State University. October 15, 2015.
     Faculty members in the College of Education received am IMLS Library Services Technology Act grant to partner with the Indiana State Library to establish the Indiana Memory Digital Preservation Collaborative. The collaborative is a statewide initiative to provide an affordable and sustainable digital preservation solution for small to mid-sized cultural heritage organizations that lack the necessary resources to manage the digital files in their collections.The collaborative will join the   MetaArchive Cooperative. The grant funding will be used for education, hardware and data preparation.

Monday, October 19, 2015

Published Preservation Policies

Published Preservation Policies. Carl Wilson, Barbara Sierman. Scape. Aug 11, 2015.
    The SCAPE project gathered a number of policies "concerning the creation of the Policy Framework". Other sources, such as a report in the Signal, Analysis of Current Digital Preservation Policies: Archives, Libraries and Museums, by Madeline Sheldon, were helpful when creating this overview of published preservation policies. The policies are divided in four categories:
  •     Libraries
  •     Archives
  •     Data Centers
  •     Miscellaneous
These policies are not all "preservation policies" and may be published under different headings.

Google Drivageddon and Docsapocalypse are here: Why I’m typing this in Microsoft Word

Google Drivageddon and Docsapocalypse are here: Why I’m typing this in Microsoft Word. John Brandon. Computerworld.
     Article about a writer unable to access documents on the Internet when there was an outage on Google. These outages may seem minor, but they are not if you cannot access the content you need.  The author also had "some of my documents in a backup saved to a hard drive, which is a good thing. What’s not a good thing? Having a total lack of control over the situation. None." But this outage is a wake-up call to save every document, not just a few, to another place. "It’s time to not put every egg in the Google basket."
[A good example of why we need multiple managed copies. -cle]

Saturday, October 17, 2015

Flooding Threatens The Times’s Picture Archive

Flooding Threatens The Times’s Picture Archive. David W. Dunlap. New York Times. October 12, 2015.
     A broken pipe sent water cascading into the storage area where The Times keeps its collection of historical photos, newspaper clippings, microfilm records, books and other archival material. About 90 percent of the affected photos would be salvageable, but how many were lost remains unknown. The card catalog was not damaged; otherwise it would be impossible to locate materials in the archive. "What makes the card catalog irreplaceable is that it has never been digitized. Hundreds of thousands of people and subjects are keyed by index numbers to the photo files, which contain an estimated six million prints and contact sheets." This "raised the question of how in the digital age... can some of the company’s most precious physical assets and intellectual property be safely and reasonably stored?"

Tuesday, October 13, 2015

Presentations from Library of Congress Storage Architectures Symposium 2015

Presentations from Library of Congress Storage Architectures Symposium 2015. Clifford Lynch. CNI. October 12, 2015. [PDF files]
     The presentations from the Library of Congress 2015 Symposium on Storage Architectures for Digital Collections are now available. The presentations during the symposium include:
  • Technology Overview of Library of Congress Storage Architectures and also Industry
  • Technical Presentations: Tape Futures, Object Storage, Fixity and Integrity
  • Community Presentations
  • Alternative Media Presentations: Digital Optical, DNA
  • Look Back/Future Predictions of Storage

Monday, October 12, 2015

Digital Curation as Journalism

Digital Curation as Journalism. Online Journalism 2. September 28, 2015.
     An interesting perspective:  
Curate – To gather, source, verify and redistribute information or social media elements to track an event. If done well, it can make sense of chaos and create a narrative of an event.  “I think curation has always been part of journalism; we just didn’t call it that.” – Andy Carvin.

Social Media Usage: 2005-2015

Social Media Usage: 2005-2015. Andrew Perrin. Pew Research Center. October 8, 2015
     Results of report on social network usage statistics. "Nearly two-thirds of American adults (65%) use social networking sites, up from 7% when Pew Research Center began systematically tracking social media usage in 2005".  The figures reported here are for social media usage among all adults, not just among those Americans who are internet users.
  • Age differences: 
    • 90% of young adults use social media
    • 35% of all those 65 and older report using social media 
  • Gender differences: 
    • 68% of all women use social media
    • 62% of all men use social media
  • Socio-economic differences: 
    • Those in higher-income households were more likely to use social media. 
    • Over 56% of the lowest-income households now use social media. 
    • Those with college experience are more likely to use social media than those with high school degree or less
  • Racial and ethnic similarities: There are no notable differences by racial or ethnic group: 
    • 65% of whites, 65% of Hispanics and 56% of African-Americans use social media today.
  • Community differences: 
  • Today, 58% of rural residents, 68% of suburban residents, and 64% of urban residents use social media.

Saturday, October 10, 2015

Software benchmark initiatives

Software benchmarks in digital preservation: Do we need them? Can we have them? How do we get them? Kresimir Duretec. Open Preservation Foundation Blog. 9th Oct 2015.
     Blog post that addresses the need for improving software evaluations in digital preservation. "A significant part of the work in digital preservation field is dependent on various software tools." Achievements have been made in various areas of digital preservation but it is quite hard to quantify how successful this has been. The lack of demonstrated evidence an important research challenge to be addressed. The BenchmarkDP project explores improving software evaluations in the digital preservation field with software benchmarks, as discussed in their paper. Two initiatives have been started:
  1. A Benchmarking forum at this year’s IPRES conference to discuss possible scenarios which are in need of proper benchmarks. 
  2. A short consultation to gather more information around current practices in software evaluation.
These initiatives should be a good starting point for a wider community involvement and better understanding of software evaluation needs in the digital preservation field.

Friday, October 09, 2015

Questions to ask when you learn of digitization projects

Questions to ask when you learn of digitization projects. Sarah Werner. Wynken de Worde. 6 October 2015.
    With new digitization projects that we hear about it may be helpful to ask some questions:
  1. Who financially benefits from such agreements? Sometimes researchers forget that the primary commercial digitization projects "isn’t to enable access to cultural heritage materials but to make money. And cultural heritage institutions have not always prioritized open access to their collections over monetizing them, either."
  2. Who is going to have access to the resulting images? In commercial projects the results "are typically limited to institutions who can pay to subscribe to the commercial database". 
  3. Who is not going to have access to the images? It is important to realize who will be excluded from such projects.  
  4. What will you be able to do with the resulting images? "Most commercial databases retain copyright over their digitized products and do not license them beyond personal use".
  5. How will this impact the ability of researchers to access the original documents? "If you are a holding institution that will be restricting access to your newly digitized collection, will you help fund scholars to come use your database if their institution doesn’t subscribe to it?"
Without knowing these kinds of details we won't know if these enterprises are "good or bad things". The projects can be expensive, and balancing the access and the cost can be complicated. "But researchers and librarians should ask themselves this list of questions before cheerleading announcements." How will we support institutions in order to "create high quality digitizations without selling our cultural heritage to the highest bidder?"

Benchmarks for Digital Preservation tools

Benchmarks for Digital Preservation tools. Kresimir Duretec, et al. Vienna University of Technology and University of Toronto. October 2015.
     "Creation and improvement of tools for digital preservation is a di cult task without an established way to assess any progress in their quality." Software benchmarking is used to "provide objective evidence about the quality of software tools" but the digital preservation field is "still missing a proper adoption of that method." This paper looks at benchmarks and proposes a model for digital preservation and a standardized way to "objectively compare various software tools relevant to the digital preservation community."

Thursday, October 08, 2015

Why we should let our digital data decay

Why we should let our digital data decay. Jamie Carter. South China Morning Post. Oct 8, 2015.
     An article that states we have all become "digital hoarders" and that letting "data expire and self-delete might be the best way to clear the clutter". Some quotes from the article or quotes of quotes to consider:
  • storage is easy to come by. So cheap has it become, in fact, that none of us are deleting anything any more. The cloud has become a commodity that's often given away free 
  • Online storage has become "dumping grounds for files to sort later."
  • "Digital minimalism has only increased the rate at which we remove physical, analogue items in favour of their digital counterparts - why have an entire library of books when you can have more books than you will probably ever read in your life on a Kindle?"
  • what's the point in having more than a few dozen ebooks? Probably the most liberating thing a Kindle owner can do is to delete any book unread for more than a year.
  • "Currently, 'forgetting' data by deliberately deleting it routinely requires more effort than having it preserved"  
  • "This increases the 'cost' of digital forgetting, and thus tilts the default towards preservation. As a consequence, digital minimalists need to spend significant time and effort to get rid of data."
  • Living as a digital minimalist is almost impossible; the constant decision making and pruning of files is time-consuming. With the cost of storage so low and falling all the time, routinely deleting data doesn't save you money.
  • Allowing data to expire and self-delete might be the most effective way to prevent our digital detritus from owning us. It might seem an esoteric debate, but there is a clear demand for apps and services with short memories.
  • as we are requested to set expiration dates we are reminded that most data is not relevant and valuable forever." In short, we'll take fewer photos, upload less, and cherry-pick only the most precious to preserve "forever".  
  • Of course, there are downsides to replacing digital durability with digital decay in the way the internet works. 
  • While some compliance rules require data retention - something that encourages companies to retain everything they do, digitally, forever - there are also data protection laws in many parts of the world to ensure that data that is no longer needed, relevant or accurate is deleted.
  • "Permanence is something we bestow on digital data, it is not a genuine quality of digital data"

Tuesday, October 06, 2015

The Digital Preservation Network (DPN) at the DLF Forum

The Digital Preservation Network (DPN) at the DLF Forum. Evviva Weinraub. Digital Library Federation website. October 1, 2015.
      Digital preservation starts when you take possession of a digital object. When institutions create or accept a digital object, "they are beginning the long journey of digital preservation." What happens to your data if there is there is a disaster or the storage institution fails? The Digital Preservation Network (DPN) is working to create a network of dark, diverse, replicated repositories that guarantee member data for at least 20 years. The DPN partners are APTrust, Texas Digital Libraries, Hathi Trust, Chronopolis, DuraSpace, and Stanford Digital Libraries and they plan to start preservation ingestion in January 2016.

ProQuest to Acquire Ex Libris

ProQuest to Acquire Ex Libris. Press release. ProQuest. October 6, 2015.
ProQuest has signed an agreement to acquire Ex Libris. "The ProQuest acquisition of Ex Libris will align print and digital resources, pioneering discovery and library management solutions, and the deep content relationships that underlie our leading metadata repositories. Our current solutions will continue to be available, with ongoing enhancements and improvements. Perhaps most exciting, we will build new and innovative solutions that address customers’ evolving needs.

The products and services you know and rely upon will be enriched by the capabilities and skills of both companies. For example, imagine the value to libraries of having unified workflows for acquisition, cataloguing and circulation or a single system that deftly manages both print and electronic resources. More content choices will be available to libraries and users around the world, and we will better meet the needs of customers in their regions, in their languages and in their time zones.

ProQuest remains committed to the core principles of choice, openness and collaboration. Indeed, these are principles shared by Ex Libris.

We will continue to work with our incredible user communities for better outcomes. Both ProQuest and Ex Libris are deeply engaged with the library community and customers. Both companies benefit from active, collaborative and forward-thinking global customer bases and user groups. Learning from you, our customers and partners, has been – and will continue to be – extremely important to us. We will be looking to you for guidance on our future product development roadmaps as well as how we can improve our current services and solutions."

Related Link:

Saturday, October 03, 2015

Risk management guide for the secure disposal of electronic records

Secure destruction of electronic records. Archives New Zealand. 2 October 2015.
     Blog post on the secure and complete destruction of electronic records plus all copies and backups. Destruction of paper records are mostly straightforward. However it is not so easy to confidently delete electronic records. The processes to destroy digital records should be secure, irreversible, planned, documented and verifiable.  The article has examples of risks of not destroying records,  as well as resources on how to implement the destruction records. In addition there is a new guide on the benefits of disposal and the risks of not disposing of records: Risk management guide for disposal of records.

[Disposal and destruction of digital records may not seem like it has anything to do with digital preservation, but it is an important part of records management. More than just that, it can be a needed part of the submission and ingest processes made multiple copies of sensitive content have been created before or while adding the content.  Or if you have been given media to add and then must dispose of the media afterwards. -cle]

Friday, October 02, 2015

Bit Preservation: How do I ensure that data remains unharmed and readable over time?

Bitbevaring – hvordan sikrer jeg, at data forbliver uskadte og læsbare over tid? Eld Zierau, Det Kongelige Bibliotek.  Original November 2010; edited January 2015.
       Preservation of bits ensures that the values ​​and order of digital bits is correct, undamaged and readable. The bits are the same as when they were received, and by managing them they will be available in the future. If the bits are changed, in the best case the object will appear different, and in the worst case the object will be unreadable in the future. Fixity can only ensure that the bits are the same; it is important along with bit preservation to plan for the logical preservation as well to make sure that the file can be rendered.
Bit security is based upon assessing the risks to the objects and then protecting the objects from events that will change the bits. The more you protect the bit integrity of the files, the more confidence you have that the files are accurately preserved.

The traditional method of file security is to make multiple copies. Those copies must be checked regularly for errors that would then need to be corrected. All copies are equally important and must be checked. You must also make sure that the copies will not be affected by the same failure event. It that happens and the error is not discovered, you could lose all copies. This is part of the risk assessment process, and you should consider the following items in order to make sure at least one copy is intact:
  • Number of copies stored: The more copies stored, the more likely that at least one copy is intact
  • Frequency of checking copies: The more often copies are checked, the more likely that at least one copy is intact
  • Copies are stored independently, such as type of hardware, organizational custody, or geographical location, the greater chance that the copies won't be affected by the same problem
Integrity Check: Use a checksum to verify the integrity of the file and store the information. This is like a fingerprint to determine which files have not changed.

Media migration: Storage media do not last forever, so the digital content must be migrated regularly. It is important that the different copies are not exposed to the migration process at the same time.

Other considerations of bit preservation include understanding the cost; determining the level of object security desired; confidentiality of materials. The Royal Library, the National Archives and the National Library are working together to provide Bitmagasinet, a shared hosted service is to store data by cooperating with each other, with copies on different media, in different locations and at different organizations.

Thursday, October 01, 2015

Towards Sustainable Curation and Preservation: The SEAD Project’s Data Services Approach

Towards Sustainable Curation and Preservation: The SEAD Project’s Data Services Approach. James Myers, et al. IEEE International Conference on eScience. September 3, 2015. [PDF]
  This is a preview of a paper that will be presented at the conference on the Sustainable Environment: Actionable Data (SEAD). It details efforts to develop data management and curation services and to make those services available for active research groups to use. The introduction raises an apparent paradox: researchers face data management challenges yet curation practices that could help are used only after research work is completed (if at all). Adding data and metadata incrementally as the data are produced, the metadata could be used to help organize data during research.

If the system that preserved the data also generated citable persistent identifiers and dynamically updated the project’s web site with those citations, then completing the publication process would be in the best interest of the researcher. The discussions have revolved around two general areas that have been termed Active and Social Curation:
  1. Active Curation: focus primarily on the activities of data producers and curators working during research projects to produce published data collections. 
  2. Social Curation: explores how the  actions of the user community can be leveraged to provide further value. This could involve the ability of research groups to 
    1. publish derived value-added data products, 
    2. notify researchers when revisions or derived products appear, 
    3. monitor the mix of file formats and metadata to help determine migration strategies
SEAD’s initial capabilities are provided by three primary interacting components:
  1. Project Spaces: secure, self-managed storage and toolsto work with data resources
  2. Virtual Archive: a service that manages publication of data collections from Project Spaces to long-term repositories
  3. Researcher Network: personal and organizational profiles that can include literature and data publications.
SEAD has developed the ability to manage, curate, and publish to sustainability science projects data through hosted project spaces. This is a new option for projects that is more powerful than just using a shared file system and that is also more cost effective than a custom project solution.