Thursday, December 14, 2006

Digital Library structure resource

A document explaining the structure of digital libraries and repositories in education. It also discusses and defines cyberinfrastructure, grid, and other technical concepts. It does not relate specifically to preservation, but it helps lay groundwork for it.

Digital libraries in education: analytical survey. Moscow: UNESCO Institute, 2003.

Friday, December 08, 2006

Weekly readings - 08 December 2006

European Digital Library Initiative. Europe's Information Society. Interim Report. October 16, 2006.

The High Level Group (HLG) on European Digital Libraries appointed a subgroup to discuss intellectual property rights issues. The Copyright Subgroup agreed on a number of principles, including: the importance of having legal certainty in the collections; getting permission for digitizing and accessing works. They identified three interlinked groups of issues:

  • digital preservation;
  • orphan works; and
  • out-of-print works.

They recognize that for some items, digitization may be the only way to ensure that some materials will be available for future generations. For preservation purposes, rights-holders should authorize institutions to make multiple copies and to migrate them as needed. “Preservation should be justified by the scarcity of the works in the market.” Coordination should take place between institutions to avoid duplication.

The DSpace Digital Repository: A Project Analysis. Stevan Chabot. Subject/Object. November 9, 2006.

An analysis of DSpace. There are some problems with it. Those used to working with commercial software vendors need to be aware that it is open source and commercial support does not yet exist. There are problems with metadata, particularly with the lack of authority control in fields. There are also many benefits. It is flexible and robust and should be able to handle most needs without customization, but it can be customized by an institutions programmers if needed.

PKI will grow, but policy problems remain. Jeremy Kirk. Computerworld. November 28, 2006.

Public key infrastructure uses certificates that have been verified by a certification authority which allows others to exchange information in a trusted way. This idea may be talked about more in the future, but there are still problems, such as changing policies and entities, and having an authority that can vouch for other entities.

Radio stations launch drive to save historic recordings. Charlie Imes. Raw Story. November 29, 2006.

The Pacifica Radio Archives is the oldest and largest audio collection of public radio programming in the United States. It contains 50,000 master reel-to-reel tapes from 1949 to today. The challenge is that these magnetic master tapes are deteriorating at a predictable rate. The Archives has started a campaign to preserve these tapes by transferring them to digital media. They are trying to fund the preservation through grants and public fund raising.

EMC announces embedded Documentum. Press release. Computer Technology Review. November 28, 2006.

EMC has launched the Documentum OEM Edition which contains a preconfigured version of the Content Server. It has the same functionality and API as the enterprise version.

Friday, December 01, 2006

Weekly readings - 01 December 2006

Rulemaking on Exemptions from Prohibition on Circumvention of Technological Measures that Control Access to Copyrighted Works. Library of Congress. 27 November 2006.

The Librarian of Congress, on the recommendation of the Register of Copyrights, announced some exemptions to the technological measures that control access to copyrighted works. These include:

1. Audiovisual works included in the educational library of a college or university’s film or media studies department, when intending to make compilations of sections for educational use in the classroom by media studies or film professors.

2. Computer programs and video games, when circumvention is for the purpose of preservation or archival reproduction of published digital works by a library or archive. A format shall be considered obsolete if the machine or system necessary is no longer manufactured or is no longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace.

3. Computer programs protected by dongles if it is no longer manufactured or if a replacement or repair is no longer reasonably available in the commercial marketplace.

4. Literary works distributed in ebook format when all existing ebook editions of the work (including digital text editions made available by authorized entities) contain access controls that prevent the enabling either of the book’s read-aloud function or of screen readers that render the text into a specialized format.

5. Computer programs in the form of firmware that enable wireless telephone handsets to connect to a wireless telephone communication network, when circumvention is accomplished for the sole purpose of lawfully connecting to a wireless telephone communication network.

6. Sound recordings, and audiovisual works associated with those sound recordings, distributed in compact disc format and protected by technological protection measures that control access to lawfully purchased works and create or exploit security flaws or vulnerabilities that compromise the security of personal computers, when circumvention is accomplished solely for the purpose of good faith testing, investigating, or correcting such security flaws or vulnerabilities. [See the full text at the copyright site.]

Smashing the Shackles of Intentionally Dysfunctional Technology. Terry Calhoun. Campus Technology. November 30, 2006.

One of the new exemptions permits film professors to legally break the copy-protection technology on film DVDs in order to copy snippets for instructional use. They already had the right to use the items under fair use, but could not use the items because of the copy protection. Many were doing this, but it was against the DMCA. The Copyright Office is willing to recognize exemptions for archivists. [See also this article for the Internet Archive perspective: Internet Archive Helps Secure Exemption To The Digital Millennium Copyright Act. November 29, 2006. ]

Data Can Now Be Stored on Paper. M. A. Siraj. Arab News. 18 November 2006.

A student has developed a technique for storing data on ordinary paper. The “Rainbow Technology” uses geometric shapes combined with various colors to preserve the data in images. The piece of paper or plastic sheet can be read with a scanner into the computer. The Rainbow Versatile Disc (RVD) could store 90 to 450 GB. This would be capable of storing files such as programs, data, audio or video. [Criticism of the concept: 256GB paper storage claims simply don't add up. Jeremy Reimer. Ars Technica. November 26, 2006. Mathematically, that amount of data can’t be stored in that small of space, and scanners would not be capable of reading the data error free.]

Avoid the top five disc-burning mistakes. Jon L. Jacobi. Computerworld. November 30, 2006.

CD/DVD recorders and media are pretty mature and stable products but burning errors still happen. Here are five ways to avoid disc-burning errors.

1. Use the software to verify the disc. This is probably the most important rule.

2. Use the correct media.

3. Burn at the correct speed.

4. Update the firmware for the burner.

5. Running other applications at the same time increases the chance of problems.

Friday, November 24, 2006

Weekly Readings - 24 November 2006

Weekly Readings – 24 November 2006

Beneath the Metadata: Some Philosophical Problems with Folksonomy. Elaine Peterson. D-Lib Magazine. November 2006.

In today's world of digital information, classification is very important. Folksonomy has emerged as an alternative to traditional classification. It is defined as

"an Internet-based information retrieval methodology consisting of collaboratively generated, open-ended labels that categorize content such as Web pages, online photographs, and Web links". The labels are called "tags", and are user-created rather than author or cataloger created. Unlike traditional controlled vocabularies (or taxonomies), folksonomies are informal, unsystematic and, to some, unsophisticated. Many internet users like them because they are easier to create, there is no hierarchically organized classification scheme, less complicated, and thus less expensive to create. The problem is that they can be messy, contrary, or inaccurate.

Traditional classification schemes are more consistent and tend to yield more exact search results, but are also more time consuming to create and more limiting. Folksonomy allows for disparate opinions and the display of multicultural views. The two systems approach information classification from different philosophical directions.

The Digital Ice Age. Brad Reagan. Popular Mechanics. November 21, 2006.

A popular article about the problems with digital preservation. One issue that is emphasized is that even if some files are still available, they may not be exactly the same with later versions of the software. Technical drawings for example may actually be different when opened with later versions. Other files are at risk of being unreadable, and it lists examples of lost data. Sometimes the problem is noticed immediately, as when something disappears, but in other cases, the problems may be invisible right now. “If the software and hardware we use to create and store information are not inherently trustworthy over time, then everything we build using that information is at risk.” Archiving has become a more complex process than it has been. Some have found that metadata is not properly transferred when files are copied. Nara has said, “We don't know how to prevent the loss of most digital information that's being created today.” They have identified over 4500 file types that they need to account for. There are questions about whether migration or emulation will succeed. Adobe is working on solutions for documents and images. Solutions suggested include backups, long-term media, data recovery, and printing important items.

Digital asset management software helps N.Y.'s Met preserve art collections. Todd Weiss. Computerworld. November 24, 2006.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art is replacing its film-based photo collection inventory with digital images in a centralized catalog using MediaBin Asset Server digital asset management software. “Being able to take photographs digitally means that prints or negatives will no longer deteriorate over time.” And they will meet one of the museum’s goals by making items available digitally to the public around the world.

Friday, November 17, 2006

Weekly readings - 17 November 2006

Author Addenda: An Examination of Five Alternatives. Peter B. Hirtle. D-Lib Magazine. November 2006.

When an author publishes a book or a paper, many publishers ask the author to transfer all copyrights in the work to the publisher. But that is not always to the author's advantage. One solution is the Author's Addendum. An addendum is a standardized legal document that modifies the publisher's agreement and allows the author to keep certain rights. The addendum may specify what rights the author does or does not have in areas such as:

· Author's Rights

· Author's Authorization Rights

· Use by the Author's Institution

· Institutional and Repository Rights

While the addendum may not be perfect, it can be an important tool so authors can retain the rights they want for themselves or their employing institutions. Sponsors should agree on a few standard addenda that all can use instead of issuing their own custom versions of the documents.

Broadcom claims first universal DVD chip. Dylan McGrath. EE Times. November 9, 2006.

Broadcom has introduced a single chip that supports both Blu-ray Disc and HD-DVD standards. The chip supports all profiles of both specifications. The universal device they have created supports all decoding, processing and memory functions of both specifications, including a number of other standards, such as MPEG-2, DVD-R, DVD-VR and audio CDs.

Colorado Alliance Digital Repository Project Approved. George Machovec. Press release. October 20, 2006.

The Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries has approved funding for a consortium-wide digital repository project. The project will allow the members to store, preserve and distribute digital objects such as images, text, audio, video, learning objects, and data sets. It will use open source utilities to speed up the development and will use the Fedora software. They consider Fedora to have “excellent long-term prospects” to be the best platform for the project. Each library will be able to have its own view of the system. Two staff will be added for the project, and the alliance is hoping to work with other libraries.

VHS, 30, dies of loneliness. Diane Garrett. Variety. November 14, 2006.

A clever eulogy for VHS tapes. Newer forms of media have taken the place of VHS, which has lasted for about 30 years. Studios have stopped manufacturing the tapes.

Friday, November 10, 2006

Weekly readings - 10 November 2006

Petascale storage may trickle down to you. Gary Anthes. Computerworld. November 06, 2006.

Questions about computer speed and storage will become the focus of the Petascale Data Storage Institute. “The overall goal is to make storage more efficient, reliable, secure and easier to manage in systems with tens or hundreds of petabytes of data spread across tens of thousands of disk drives, possibly used by tens of thousands of clients.” This may not be the system that you are using, but the research will benefit other users. High performance computing is more about quality than cost reduction. Problems they are trying to resolve include:

· Slow disk access times as disk size increases

· Reducing the failure rate of disks

· Better fault tolerant systems

· More efficient file systems

Scirus Partners with Indian Institute of Science. Press Release. November 1, 2006.

Elsevier has announced that it will partner with the Indian Institute of Science to index their two institutional repositories. The first is a research repository that uses GNU EPrints software to archive their preprints, post-prints and other scholarly publications. The second is their digital repository of Theses and Dissertations which has been developed to capture, disseminate and preserve their research theses. The repository uses DSpace and allows them to self archive their theses and dissertations.

IBM fattens tape capacity to 700GB. Robert Mullins. Computerworld. November 01, 2006.

IBM has introduced a tape cartridge that holds 700G bytes of data with the same size as lower-capacity tapes. The 700GB cartridges are available for both permanent read-only archiving and re-writable. The tapes are best suited for long-term data storage.

Content as a Digital Asset. Puneet Vohra. Hindustan Times. November 8, 2006.

Content on a website is an asset. Presently it may not be considered valuable, but the value may increase in the future. “Maintaining archives is equivalent to preserving your heritage.” It is important to preserve your digital heritage, and websites are part of that heritage. “An archive needs to recreate the look and feel of the original record.”

Friday, November 03, 2006

Weekly readings - 03 November 2006

Using Digital Images in Teaching and Learning: Perspectives from Liberal Arts Institutions. Wesleyan University and The National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education. October 2006. [Sometimes the blog doesn't handle the link; if so, paste this link in your browser: ]

A report that looks at digital resources in teaching and learning situations. Faculty use digital images mostly from personal collections (90%) or from Google Images. “Many faculty need considerable assistance in organizing and managing these collections, ” such as providing cataloging and management tools. Often faculty need better quality images that those in Google Images. There are free databases of images, but few faculty use them, possibly because they don’t know they exist. The LionShare project, for example, has created a way for peer-to-peer file exchanges among faculty worldwide.

The majority of faculty never use licensed or library image databases. The institution should bring together image collections from different departments, museums and special collections into a single institutional collection, though it is a difficult and complex undertaking. Faculty have said “using digital images had revolutionized their teaching.” The complexity, difficulty and expense of deploying digital images and the transition, is a longer, more ongoing process than we have expected. It is more of an ongoing process than a transition.

They recommend:

· Develop and share tools and services to help faculty organize, catalog, and manage their personal digital collections, in a user-centered content model.

· Encourage and enhance the relationship between individual personal digital image collections and the evolving institutional collection.

· Publicize and direct users to especially good online image resources in any given subject area.

· Publicize and demonstrate locally-available digital image resources to faculty and, where possible, research faculty’s most pressing digital image needs in order to match them with available resources.

· Create institutional collections serving many departments

· Develop a plan with faculty to provide digital image services when closing analog slide collections

· Publicize new tools as they become available

Long-term Stewardship of Digital Data Sets in Science and Engineering. ARL Report of workshop held on September 2006.

This 160 page report examines the role of research and academic libraries in the stewardship of scientific and engineering digital data. The stewardship of digital data is fundamental to research. Because of the large challenge regarding digital data stewardship, responsibilities should include partnerships with institutions and disciplines. Universities have played a leadership role in the long-term preservation of knowledge through their libraries. “Stewardship of digital resources involves both preservation and curation. Preservation entails standards-based, active management practices that guide data throughout the research life cycle, as well as ensure the long-term usability of these digital resources. Curation involves ways of organizing, displaying, and repurposing preserved data.” There needs to be a close link between digital data archives and scholarly publications. Preservation occurs throughout the lifecycle or stages of data production.

Preservation consists of

· the management practices based on standards for the metadata and data throughout the research life cycle

· the long-term care for these digital products.

· the standards-based output of metadata and data for their long-term care, access, migration and refreshment.

Preservation of digital data has forced a re-examination within the library/archives community of existing assumptions about responsibility, use, oversight,

and cost. Long-term preservation and curation are understood as preserving and reading bits, but also as a system that requires cooperation across many organizations and stakeholders in a sustainable model. Preservation is both an organizational and a technical challenge. The OAIS model is a useful mechanism for preservation.

Data preservation has distinctive requirements for

· Resources: storage, systems, maintenance, services

· Continuity: migrate without interruption

· Metrics of success: no serious loss of data

· Funding: address long-term commitment

In building a preservation model, some research topics include: prototyping different types of technical architectures; specifying ingest systems at different scales; deploying data models across organizations; and creating tools for automatic metadata harvesting.

Academic libraries need to expand their work to include storage, preservation, and curation of digital scientific and engineering data. This requires evaluating where in the research process chain the preservation activities should occur, who should do them, and how they should be accomplished. In discussing models for economical sustainability of such activities: one model was “The Mormon Church, which combines tithing, user fees, and sales.” Multiple strategies will be required to meet the different circumstances that exist. Repository experiments should address key issues such as transition between media/formats/institutions, self-sustainability, and exit strategy.

Some recommendations include:

· Involve experts in developing economic models for sustainable data preservation

· Set up multiple repositories and treat them as experiments.

· Develop tools for automated services and standards to manipulate data easily

“Digital information is fragile and we do not have the luxury of letting time take its course.” There needs to be sustainable framework for long-term stewardship of digital data. “We don’t get anywhere if we don’t start somewhere.”

Friday, October 27, 2006

Weekly readings - 27 October 2006

Preserving a copy of the future. The Guardian. October 19, 2006.

The UK recording industry is trying to extend the copyright of sound recordings from 50 years to 95, which it currently is in the US. The British Library Sound Archive opposes the change, because "we are unable to copy for preservation purposes film or sound material that sits in our permanent collection." In addition, 185,000 tapes are unpublished; many of the copyright owners are unknown, which makes the problem more difficult. Extending the term increases these ‘orphan works’. Others feel term extension and preservation copying are separate issues. Digital media increase the complications. Preservation must begin immediately because deterioration is invisible. Digital rights management also impacts preservation, since many licenses do not grant as many rights as the law allows. Access is important; preservation is not enough.

Fujifilm to Show MicroFilm Archive System at ARMA 2006. Press release. October 19, 2006.

The Fujifilm Document Archive System records documents onto their 16mm film. The documents can be scanned from paper, or transferred as TIFF files, which are then indexed to the imaging system. These files are imaged up to 130 pages per minute. The film can be read on any traditional microfilm reader. An index file containing the roll number, frame number, and file name, is also available. The system cost is $54,995.

Fedora and the Preservation of University Records Project. Kevin Glick, et al. RLG DigiNews. Oct 15, 2006.

The project was intended to decide if Fedora could serve as an electronic records preservation system. The project was framed within the OAIS model and beneath that there was a set of requirements that they needed. They soon realized that Fedora would only be one part of the preservation system, which would also include ingest and access, and creation of preservation policies. These must shape what Fedora will become for an institution. The team felt that Fedora provides a promising basis of a preservation system. It can manage essentially any type of file, complex hierarchical relationships, multiple bitstreams, versioning, and transformations. It can provide for persistent identifiers, access policies, and handles XML. Setting the requirements was the most difficult part.

Friday, October 20, 2006

Weekly readings - 20 October 2006

Strategies and Frameworks for Institutional Repositories and the New Support Infrastructure for Scholarly Communications. Tyler O. Walters. D-Lib Magazine.

October 2006.

The number of institutional repositories is increasing and increasingly they are more important for storing and sharing scholarly information. But they are becoming more than just a place to store, organize, and access content. Users now expect content that can be used in other settings and environments, reused in multiple formats, and also forums to exchanging ideas, both on and off campus. Everyone has ‘content’, not just libraries. To support these needs, content managers must be able to send/receive, store, organize, and archive content. The content must be easy to find and to use with other systems. In approaching this, libraries should follow this guiding principle: “first determine university goals and faculty needs and then develop products, services, and capabilities with these in mind.” If the repository is an indispensable part of the educational activities of the campus, it will get the support needed to survive. The success may well depend on finding creative ways for faculty and students to use the information in the repository, and a number of services and processes are mentioned. More work is need to integrate the repository into the institution.

8.6 gigapixel stitched photograph of Italian fresco revealed. Rob Galbraith. Web site. October 19, 2006.

Worth looking at: An Italian group that specializes in art restoration, preservation and high-resolution art photography, has posted an 8.6 gigapixel stitched image of an Italian fresco. The image consists of 1145 frames that were assembled into the final image of 96,679 pixels x 89,000 pixels. The methods used to assemble and crop the final image are a closely-guarded secret, since the company had to create custom tools and techniques to produce a high-resolution picture such as this.

It required writing dedicated software for some tasks because this large of an image can't be generated with a 'shoot and stitch' approach.

Considering a Marketing and Communications Approach for an Institutional Repository. Heleen Gierveld. Ariadne. October 2006.

Institutional Repositories come from the an institution’s vision to collect, secure, and provide digital access to scholarly publications in a local way. These repositories have emerged mostly because several reasons, of technological innovations which allow a new way to collect a university's output, reacting to the high cost of serial publications, and a way to provide quick access to publications. While the benefits may be clear to librarians, it is unclear if they are attractive to authors. The repositories have difficulty attracting content, which is a critical factor for the success of the repository. There are several approaches and factors presented, but essentially the institutional repository is a Product, and developing and managing it is a marketing matter. It requires good communications and a good strategy, but it must also meet a need and exceed the expectations of the users.

Friday, October 13, 2006

Weekly readings - 13 October 2006

What Is Needed to Educate Future Digital Librarians. Youngok Choi, Edie Rasmussen. D-Lib Magazine. September 2006.

Educating digital librarians has become an important agenda item. The role of libraries has changed with the new digital environment. Educational programs need to be created to prepare future digital librarians for libraries. Some of the new roles include positions similar to Digital Initiatives Librarian, Metadata Librarian, Digital Preservation Librarian, Digital Imaging Specialist, Digital Technologies Development Librarian, and others. New skills identified fall into areas such as Technology, Library related skills, and others, such as communication and interpersonal skills, project management, presentation, and grant writing. Findings include:

·Digital libraries are collaborative in areas from computing systems to traditional library functions.

·Digital library jobs will be very attractive to the next generation of library professionals

·Major tasks include management, leadership, and website-related tasks. Monitoring the practice and standards of current digital libraries, is critical.

·Soft skills, such as communication and project management are needed in digital librarianship. Digital librarians must adapt to change and continue to learn.

·Education programs must emphasize skills and competencies and technical and information skills.

Skype's Venice Project Revealed. Steve Rosenbush. BusinessWeek. October 5, 2006.

Skype is unveiling its latest product, a web site that combines TV and video with the interactive tools of the internet. The site should be available by the end of the year. They are trying to convince media and TV companies to place their full-length content on the network, but adding content will also be open to anyone. The site is designed to work within the intellectual property rights system. It is based on peer-to-peer technology, in which the infrastructure comprises user PCs, not central servers. The videos are streamed to the computers, not downloaded.

Moving towards shareable metadata. Sarah L. Shreeves, Jenn Riley, and Liz Milewicz. First Monday. August 2006.

Shareable metadata is metadata which can be understood and used outside of its local environment by aggregators to provide more advanced services. Sharing metadata and the resultant aggregations benefit users, particularly those users whose subject interest cuts across disciplinary boundaries. Aggregations also benefit the institutions sharing the metadata. Institutions can no longer assume that users know about their online collections and remember to visit them. By allowing their metadata to appear in places outside of the original collection, institutions increase the number of access points to the items in their collection and expose their collection to a broader audience. Problems include:

·Inconsistency within a single collection.

·Too much information.

·Lack of key contextual information.

·Lack of conformance to technical standards.

Shareable metadata is different from in house metadata; it should be human understandable, and quality data, thought that does not mean complex. The following characteristics are particularly important:

·Content is optimized for sharing.

·Metadata within shared collections reflects consistent practices.

·Metadata is coherent.

·Context is provided.

·The metadata provider communicates with aggregators through direct or indirect means.

·Metadata and sharing mechanisms conform to standards.

At the most basic level, institutions who contribute metadata through whatever means should consider the content and consistency of their metadata. Implementing shareable metadata may be a slow process that is conducted as institutions work with new collections, but the ability to think critically about the shareability of ones’ own metadata and the commitment to make the necessary changes will be key for the next stage of effective digital library services.

Arius3D Canada Inc.: University College London, Petrie Museum to Digitize Collection. News Release. Oct. 5, 2006.

Arius3D provides digital archiving solutions. It is the only three-dimensional measurement system that simultaneously captures color and geometry from real world objects. It is affected by ambient light, so it provides an accurate and precise image. Once an object's image is captured it can be redeployed in a multitude of resolutions and in a range of file formats.

Tuesday, October 10, 2006

Weekly readings - 6 October 2006

Fedora and the Preservation of University Records Project. Eliot Wilczek, Kevin Glick. Project web site. September 2006.

This project examines electronic records preservation research and theory with digital library practice. The three areas looked at are:

1. Requirements for trustworthy recordkeeping systems and preservation activities,

2. Ingesting records into a preservation system, and

3. Maintaining records in a preservation system.

The project provides twelve reports and an ingest prototype tool. The sections include:

1. Introduction: Overview, model, concerns

2. Ingest: Ingest guide, projects, tools

3. Maintain: Guide, checklist

4. Findings: Analysis of Fedora’s ability to support preservation activities, conclusions, future directions

A few notes from the conclusion that caught my interest:

· The OAIS Reference Model is the overarching conceptual structure for preservation activities and systems.

· The Ingest Guide and Maintain Guide translate the requirements into actions in those areas

· Long-term preservation of archival university records is a difficult and costly endeavor.

· Because of resource costs, most archives must develop partnerships to successfully preserve electronic records and digital objects.

· Archivists must become a step removed from the records they manage if they are going to preserve them.

· Archivists must work with record creators as they create their records to preserve them

CEATEC: Hitachi Maxell develops wafer-thin storage disc. Martyn Williams. Computerworld. October 04, 2006.

The stacked volumetric optical disc (SVOD) is less than a tenth of a millimeter thick, and this thinness could give the technology an advantage over current CDs, DVDs and blue-laser discs, all of which are 1.2 mm thick. Many of the discs can be stacked together to realize a large data storage capacity in a small space.

New DVD could end format war. CNN. September 27, 2006.

New Medium Enterprises said it can produce a multiple-layer DVD disk containing one film in different, competing formats, such as Blu-Ray and HD-DVD.

This follows a patent by three employees at Warner Bros. in which these are complementary patents. By being able to put the same material on a single disk in the two competing formats this will resolve consumer’s concerns. The first prototype using the technology should be ready by early 2007. NME has also created the technology for the machines to read and write the disk. The technology can create DVD disks with up to 10 different layers that were still readable. Data on a DVD are stored at different depths depending on the technology: Blu-Ray discs store information 0.1 millimeter from the surface while HD-DVD discs store it at 0.6 millimeters.

With technology, records seem made to be forgotten. Charles Piller. Los Angeles Times. Sept. 18, 2006.

An article discussing the loss of digital items. It affects households as well as archivists. There is no list of lost records, but archivists continue to find examples. "If we don't solve the problem, our time will not become part of the past. It will largely vanish." Archivists expect that the current presidential administration records will be less complete than those of Lincoln. NARA is creating a system to preserve information, but some feel that each migration of data will lose some meaning. In other ways, each new migration generates more data which increases the complexity of the problem.

New 1TB Desktop External HD Goes for $500. Chris Preimesberger. eWeek. October 2, 2006.

Buffalo Technology has announced a new external hard drive which ranges from 500GB to 1.5TB. It has two drives that can be set up in a RAID-1 configuration for reliability. It is intended to make storage simple for end users. It comes with data encryption technology to prevent unauthorized access. The cost is $249 for 500GB up to $999 for 1.5TB.

Old E-Mail Keeps Getting More Expensive. Kim Nash. eWeek. September 26, 2006.

We all know it is expensive to go through old files and backup tapes looking for emails that are required for lawsuits or audits. Sometimes the cost of producing the files can be shared. But in a recent case, the judge ruled they: “should have reasonably anticipated having to produce all the former employees’ e-mails, and therefore kept that data in a form that was quick and easy to access – i.e. not archived on backup tapes stored offsite.”